When subjects with diabetes, depressive disorder or hypertension were excluded from the analysis, the association with cardiovascular disease remained high for rest durations of five hours or much less and nine hours or even more . Although individual sleep needs vary, the American Academy of Rest Medicine recommends that most adults should obtain about seven to eight hours of nightly rest to experience alert and well rested during the day. According to the authors, the mechanisms underlying the association between brief sleep and coronary disease can include sleep-related disturbances in endocrine and metabolic features.Ellison notes that the research does have yet another takeaway for consumers: Calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entr-e as opposed to supplemental products such as drinks and desserts. While both calorie labels reduced entr-e calories ordered, both actually increased extra calories ordered from extra sides also, desserts, drinks, etc., when compared to menu without nutrition info, she said. So there does appear to be what we call a 'licensing effect,' which could potentially be considered a concern also. In other words, people may reward themselves for purchasing a low-calorie entr-e by adding on a dessert, ultimately negating the entr-e calorie reduction.