Moist, M.D., Charmaine E. Lok, M.D., Marcello Tonelli, M.D., S.M., Braden J. Manns, M.D., Rachel M. Holden, M.D., Martine LeBlanc, M.D., Peter Faris, Ph.D., Paul Barre, M.D., Jianguo Zhang, M.Sc., and Nairne Scott-Douglas, M.D., Ph.D. For the Avoidance of Dialysis Catheter Lumen Occlusion with rt-PA versus Heparin Research Group: Avoidance of Dialysis Catheter Malfunction with Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Central venous catheters are used for vascular access in nearly all patients undergoing hemodialysis.1-3 The main complications of catheters include thrombosis and infection.4,5 Approximately 50 percent of hemodialysis catheters fail within 1 year6; up to two thirds of the failures are because of thrombosis.All injection-site reactions but one involved an area smaller sized than 5 mm in diameter. Needlessly to say, the prevalence of these events in the fractional-dose group, which received intradermal shots, was greater than that in the full-dose group significantly, which received intramuscular shots . Discussion This study provides data on a priming immune response following the administration of an initial fractional dose of IPV and on seroconversion following the administration of an initial dose, second dose, or cumulative two-dose schedule of IPV which may be appropriate after wild-type poliovirus has been eradicated. First, the study showed that after an initial dose of IPV, seroconversion and priming led to an immune response in at least 90 percent of infants. Second, it demonstrated that the administration of IPV in infants at 4 months and 8 months of age resulted in seroconversion in a lot more than 90 percent of infants, with high antibody titers correspondingly, of whether fractional or full doses were used regardless.