We look back in some of the essential insights into biomedicine published this full year.

Today, thalidomide can be used clinically to treat individuals with multiple myeloma and leprosy, therefore understanding the molecular targets of thalidomide and their functions in limb formation can help make safer derivatives of this drug. Now, scientists have chalked up the common inflammatory response to the shared evolutionary origin of mitochondria and bacteria. Researchers from the Beth Israel Deaconess INFIRMARY in Boston examined the bloodstream plasma of 15 trauma sufferers and found circulating components of mitochondrial DNA and proteins known as formyl peptides. Notably, these same receptors and signaling pathways are triggered by invading bacteria also, resulting in a robust inflammatory response resembling sepsis.The task was performed within an MRI-guided focused ultrasound system, comprising a 3 Tesla MRI and the ExAblate Neuro , with a hemispheric, 650-kHz, 1024-element, phased-array transducer. A reference scan was performed to position the transducer to the mark. A series of anatomical MRI scans had been fused to the preoperative CT scan for the skull-correction algorithm. Therapeutic sonications of 10 to 20 mere seconds were applied by gradually escalating the energy and monitoring the temperature after that. All patients communicated with the clinicians through the entire treatment freely. Clinical assessments for tremor suppression and for the current presence of any side effects were performed after each sonication.